Work on the development of nuclear energy in Soviet Russia has begun still in 20-e years of the last century. In the prewar years on the basis of leading scientific institutions of the country program was developed for the implementation of the so-called “uranium project”. But the war brought about changes in the development plans of the industry.
Work in the wartime conditions were not sufficiently intensive. Significant acceleration of them gave a successful test in July 1945 in the U.S. the atomic bomb.
Therefore, the starting point in the history of the domestic nuclear industry is considered to be a 20 August 1945. On this day, Joseph Stalin signed a decree on establishment of the management body of works on uranium – ad hoc Committee under the State Committee of Defense (SCD) of the USSR.
28 September in Russia, in accordance with the presidential decree of 3 June 2005, the Day of nuclear industry worker.
The history of atomic energy of the Russian Federation
On 28 September 1942. was signed a secret order of the State Committee of defense (SCD) of the USSR “About the organization of works on uranium”. The document instructed the Academy of Sciences (an) of the USSR “to resume work on the feasibility study of the use of nuclear energy by fission of uranium and submit by April 1, 1943 report on the possibility of creating a uranium bomb or uranium fuel.”
In 1943, the scientific supervisor of the works on the nuclear issue was appointed Professor LPTI Igor Kurchatov, and under his leadership, the USSR established the Laboratory room 2 (now the national research centre “Kurchatov Institute”).
The decree of GKO of the USSR of 20 August 1945 was formed the Special Committee under the GKO of the USSR, which was responsible for the management of all works on creation of atomic weapons and nuclear industries.
For the creation of the atomic bomb in the Laboratory room 2 Academy of Sciences of the USSR in 1946, was organized by the Design Bureau No. 11 (KB-11; now the Russian Federal nuclear center – all-Russian research Institute of experimental physics, RFNC-VNIIEF; Sarov, Nizhny Novgorod region).
On 29 August 1949 at the Semipalatinsk test site was successfully tested the first Soviet nuclear charge (the product is RDS-1).
In 1951 tested a second atomic bomb, and in 1953 first Soviet thermonuclear bomb (RDS-6s).
Since the late 1940s began the development of the civil sector of the nuclear industry. In 1950 the Council of Ministers of the USSR adopted a resolution “On research, design and experimental works on the use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes”.
In 1953 was formed the Central body of state administration of the USSR on the management of nuclear industry Ministry of medium machine building (Minsredmash; subsequently, the Ministry of atomic energy and industry of the USSR, the Ministry of atomic energy, the Federal atomic energy Agency, 2007 the state Corporation “Rosatom”). On June 27, 1954 in Obninsk, Kaluga region was connected to the mains the world’s first commercial nuclear power plant (now stopped).
Just in the nuclear industry of Russia there are over 400 enterprises and organizations employing more than 240 thousand people. These are enterprises of the nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear energy, scientific research institutes.
Currently in Russia there are 10 nuclear power plants, which are in operation with 28 units. The share in total electricity generation is 17% (in the North-Western regions – up to 37%). Currently the construction of three new nuclear power plants: the Baltic, Leningrad-2 and Novovoronezh-2, as well as additional reactors to existing stations.
Pictures of all 10 Russian NPPs in the gallery.