25 years Warsaw Pact: Soviet-bloc Nations in NATO


25 February 2016 will be 25 years from the date of termination of military structures of the Warsaw Treaty Organization.

Dossier

The Warsaw Pact (officially the Treaty of friendship, cooperation and mutual assistance) was signed on 14 may 1955 the USSR, GDR, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Romania and Albania at the meeting in Warsaw to ensure peace and security in Europe. The document came into force on 5 June 1955 In accordance with it was created a military Alliance of socialist States – the Warsaw Treaty Organization (ATS). It was a retaliatory measure for Western States ratification of the Paris agreements of 1954, which provided for the formation of military grouping of the Western European Union and the inclusion of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) in NATO.

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The ATS, which was created as a counterbalance to NATO, initially a purely defensive purpose. However, in the 1960-ies started to dominate the so-called “Brezhnev doctrine”, according to which the USSR interfered in the Affairs of Eastern Europe, in order to keep them in the socialist camp.

And when internal and external forces hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards the restoration of the capitalist order, when a threat arises to the cause of socialism in this country, the threat to the security of the socialist Commonwealth as a whole — this already becomes not only a problem of the people of this country, but also a common problem, the concern of all socialist countries

Leonid Brezhnev
the General Secretary of the CPSU (presented at the fifth Congress of the Polish United workers ‘ party in 1968)

In full conformity with this doctrine in 1968, the combined forces of the police Department (except Romania) were introduced in Czechoslovakia to suppress initiated reforms to liberalize the political system (this process is called Prague spring).

As later wrote in his memoirs of the last head of the USSR Mikhail Gorbachev, “the doctrine” was never officially declared, but actually determined the approach of Moscow to the allied countries. Became General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee, Gorbachev took a course on the rejection of the “Brezhnev doctrine”.

Grasp the restructuring, I assumed the inalienable right of every people to determine their own future. Of course, we patiently and persistently explained the meaning and significance of the proposed changes, and engage in the discussions with allies around the problems of socialism, if you will — influenced by his example, but no one imposed their choice. Those who still complains about Gorbachev, show a basic lack of respect to his nation, who gained freedom and has used it on their own and understanding

Mikhail Gorbachev
the General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee, first President of the USSR (from the book “Life and reforms”)

Due to the reforms in the USSR and Eastern Europe in June 1990 in Moscow it was decided to turn the police Department from the military into a political structure. However, the unification of Germany and political processes in Eastern Europe led to the final dissolution of the organization. The corresponding Protocol was signed on 1 July 1991 in Prague.

Currently, all of the allies of the USSR on ATS are members of NATO. Hungary, the Czech Republic and Poland joined the Alliance in 1999, Bulgaria, Romania, Slovakia, in 2004, Albania in 2009.

It would seem that with the fall of the Berlin wall, the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact and the Soviet Union came a new era, creating the conditions for deideologized relations between the countries and peoples. There is a real chance to make the OSCE the embodiment of true European unity. But, apparently, in the minds of many, the Berlin wall was still very strong

Sergey Lavrov
the Minister of foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation (article in “Itogi” magazine, may 17, 2010)

These words were relevant and a few years later, when he began a discussion about the choice of Ukraine between EU Association and cooperation with the Customs Union, as well as about the failure of Kiev from non-aligned status. This, in particular, has led to “euromaidan” and the armed conflict in the South-East of Ukraine.

According to the head of the Russian foreign Ministry, Sergei Lavrov, instead of “to make the OSCE a normal organization, which truly would be the organization for security and ensure safety of all, our Western colleagues followed the path of thoughtless, limitless NATO expansion”. He also added that it was rejected and the proposal to develop the concept of a single economic and humanitarian space, and then it “broke in the situation with Ukraine”.

Now, according to the head of the Russian foreign Ministry, to justify the existence of NATO is necessary to inflate the myth about the “Russian threat”, through which the Alliance tries to master the geopolitical space closer to the borders of Russia, contrary to previous promises and commitments.