Export deliveries of Russia’s “secret code” (SSSS) in 2015 amounted to us $56,2 billion, follows from the data of the FCS, collected by the international trade Centre (ITC) in Moscow. Thus, more than 16% last year Russia’s exports — the highest share since at least 2012 is covered by state secret. The total export in 2015 was $343,4 billion, a decrease of 31% compared to almost $500 billion in the previous year. But the “secret” export fell twice slower.
Export secret code are “dual-use goods, the products of defense industry, aviation industry, natural gas, due to the need to protect information in order to ensure economic security”, said the representative of the ITC. According to the decree of the President of Russia, in the list of information classified as state secrets include information about Russian export or import of weapons and military equipment, dual-use products if the disclosure/premature disclosure “could damage state security”.
The “secret” directions
Most classified equipment Russia supplies to Germany ($9,45 billion in 2015), Turkey ($7,63 billion), against which Moscow imposed sanctions, and Italy ($6.25 billion). More than thirds of all Russian exports to Germany and Turkey (37% and 39%) is covered by the regime of state secrets. Belarus last year received its products under the secret code on $2.78 billion, Ukraine — $2,14 billion But “secret” exports to all these countries decreased, by 10.2—62.6 per cent.
Statistics of deliveries by secret codes are always different volatility, says the head of the laboratory of international trade Department of the Gaidar Institute Alexander Knobel. “Secret codes sold such products, which are not always subject to market laws. We understand that these markets are limited, they [the supply of such goods and conditions of supply] is due to political agreements,” — said the expert. The impact of economic factors such as the devaluation or the customs and tariff policy, “not as predictable as in conventional commodity group with global competitive markets.”
In the context of economic recession and confrontation with the West state as a whole becomes more transparent: so, in may 2015, President Vladimir Putin has extended the regime of state secrets to loss of personnel in peace time, officials also classified data about the ownership of the Russian Federation abroad and the Federal budget the share of “private” costs in 2015 reached 24.7% (against 13.7% in 2010).
In some areas classified supplies has grown substantially: for example, the code SSSS exports to Vietnam increased by 30% (to $1.17 billion), after rising by 40% a year earlier and, in Algeria — not in 1166%, from $86 million to $1.1 billion These countries, as well as Iraq and India, are traditional buyers of Russian weapons. In 2015, according to the Stockholm Institute of peace studies (SIPRI), Algeria received T-90S tanks under the contract with “Rosoboronexport” from 2014, transport helicopters Mi-26, has also signed a contract for 14 fighters su-30MKA. Vietnam in 2014-2016 should have four submarines of the “project-636М” (“Varshavyanka”) and also buys the su-30MK.
In 2015 Rosoboronexport was to sell abroad weapons worth at least $12.5 billion, said in November the head of Rostec Sergey Chemezov.
Not only weapons
Under a secret code may be held not only weapons, but also civilian equipment under contracts that are for some reason not disclosed, wrote the newspaper “Kommersant”, in December 2014 with reference to sources in the customs sphere. According to her, in 2014, under a secret code held the delivery of Boeing 777-300 ER Aeroflot signed a contract in 2011. As a result, “secret” Russian imports from the U.S. rose for $3.5 billion.
To help you understand what supplies restricted in the statistics of the FCS could theoretically be a comparison with similar data of countries—trade partners, but in practice it is difficult. For example, statistics of the British tax and customs service shows that the UK in 2015, imported from Russia goods in the category of “Aircraft and spacecraft and parts thereof” for 196 million pounds ($280 million), but further subheadings classified data.
Sensitive trade with the U.S.
Sanctions did not prevent politically sensitive trade between Russia and the United States. Secret exports from Russia in 2015 has increased by 24%, to $1.4 billion as part of a secret export may relate to, for example, nuclear materials. According to the resource Export.gov the Ministry of Commerce of the USA, Russia annually supplies to America more than $1 billion in category “inorganic chemicals, compounds of precious metals, of rare-earth metals, of radioactive elements or of isotopes”. State Techsnabexport contracts until 2020 supplies enriched uranium to several U.S. nuclear operators, including the largest power-generating company Exelon USA.
Import to Russia on secret codes in 2015 amounted to $4.86 billion — 44% less than in 2014 ($8.75 billion). Most of all, Russia has been classified shipments from the U.S. ($2.8 billion), followed far behind Norway ($295 million), France ($255 million) and Canada ($216 million).
The largest article of the American export to Russia, according to the U.S. Department of Commerce, this “aircraft and spacecraft and their components” (almost $2 billion for 2015) and “nuclear reactors, boilers and machinery” ($1.4 billion) — part of a secret import might be lurking there. Overall, one-fifth of bilateral trade of Russia and the USA classified FCS, follows from the data of ITC.