Why is created the national guard?
The national guard is created on the basis of internal troops of the Ministry of internal Affairs, said President Vladimir Putin at a meeting with interior Minister Vladimir Kolokoltsev, chief of the internal troops of the Ministry of internal Affairs Viktor Zolotov, Director of the Federal drug control service Viktor Ivanov and first Deputy Director of the Federal migration service Ekaterina Egorova. Headed The National Guard Zolotov. According to the presidential decree, now officially his title was “Director and commander-in-chief of the Federal service of troops of the National guard”. By status, it is equivalent to Federal Minister, and entered the Russian security Council.
The President’s press Secretary Dmitry Peskov in conversation with noted that the national guard will be directly subordinated to Putin.
As follows from the presidential decree, the national guard will maintain public order, to fight terrorism and extremism, engage in territorial defense of the country, to protect an important state-owned enterprises and special goods to help FSB at the border, as well as to monitor compliance with legislation in the sphere of trafficking in weapons and in the field of private security.
“One of the most important tasks given to the guard, the fight against organized crime, as a separate line in the Ministry of internal Affairs it has been lost since 2008 — since the abolition of the organized crime. Such an Agency can exist without an operational part, and she was in the BB is — they have their own intelligence,” says the Deputy Chairman of the Duma security Committee Alexander Khinshtein.
A source in the presidential administration noted that the national guard would centralize the work of several disparate forces that were still in the structure of the Ministry of internal Affairs. This service will be easier to manage, he added .
The project on creation of the National guard for about four years, says political scientist Yevgeny Minchenko. Initially it was assumed that primarily the National guard will be guarding function (why and its Directors and designated chief security guard of the President): suppression of riots, the prevention and elimination of mass riots. But eventually the functions of the national guard expanded, which means greater hardware win Zolotov, says the expert.
Who will enter in the guard?
Internal forces are converted to troops of the national guard. Their composition will include all the special forces of the interior Ministry, according to the presidential decree.
The total number of MIA in 2015 was just over a million people. Of these, about 170 thousand were internal forces that were stationed almost throughout the country.
From the document follows that the new Federal service of National guard troops includes the divisions of SWAT and Riot police, the Center for special purpose rapid reaction force and aviation, private security, in particular, the Center of special purpose of private security of the interior Ministry, interior Ministry units, which are engaged in control over observance of legislation in the sphere of trafficking in weapons and in the field of private security activities, as well as the Federal state unitary enterprise “Protection”, which provides paramilitary and physical protection and the installation and operation of technical means of protection.
The creation of the National guard will not require an increase in staff numbers, will not require increases in office and anything else, said Sands, answering the question.
Since all of the training bases will be transferred from the MIA to the national guard, budget expenditures will be minimal, believes a source in law enforcement bodies. With this opinion agrees the President of the Association of police trade unions of Russia Alexei Lobarev. According to him, the training base will simply be transferred to the National guard, to build new objects not necessary.
Earlier, the interior Ministry have repeatedly complained about the lack of funding. During discussion in the Duma the budget for 2016, Deputy interior Minister Alexander Maganov noted that the Agency lacks RUB 41 billion Shortfall caused, in particular, reductions in the Agency and payments made to staff who leave the ranks of the interior Ministry.
According to Hinstein, it is no secret that within the interior Ministry internal troops had not received in the required amount of funds for re-equipment, providing technical equipment, etc. Now this situation will change. The autonomy of the national guard may including to make life easier for the interior Ministry, because the Ministry of the high current budget deficit — more than 120 billion rubles., says Khinshtein.
Who is Viktor Zolotov?
In may 2014 Putin appointed Zolotov first Deputy interior Minister, commander of internal troops of the interior Ministry, after six months he had worked on the post of the first Deputy commander-in-chief VV. Prior to his appointment in the Ministry of internal Affairs Zolotov 13 years she worked in the Federal security service (FSO) and was the head of the presidential security Service. To manage the presidential guard Zolotov, was appointed by Putin after his arrival in the Kremlin in 2000.
Putin knew Zolotova from the 1990s, when the roots were guarded by the mayor of St. Petersburg Anatoly Sobchak, who was Putin’s Deputy. As reported by “Novaya Gazeta”, began his career Zolotov in the 9th Directorate of the KGB of the USSR, which later was converted into a FSO. Zolotov graduated from the law Institute and the Academy of the General staff.
“The President and commander-in-chief does not appoint people to lead the security forces, not caring for them personal trust,” said Sands, answering the question whether the Kremlin’s special trust to Zolotov.
We are talking about serious hardware strengthening character, he becomes in some of the most influential of the siloviki, said Minchenko. The expert reminds that the growing influence of immigrants from the SSF has been noticeable in recent years, and particularly in recent months: several former colleagues Zolotov has held important posts in the Ministry of internal Affairs after his conflict with the FSB and Governor of the Tula region became Alexey Dyumin. Close to this group and recently led the Krasnodar Krai Veniamin Kondratiev.
Chief enforcement office not vacant — this role is claimed by both the FSB and FSO, but the new structure headed Zolotov precisely because of its novelty can be no greater vote of confidence, emphasized in conversation with political analyst Mikhail Vinogradov.
How the national guard will interact with the FSB?
It is difficult to say whether to change the functions of other services and agencies in connection with the appearance of the National guard, Peskov replied to the question, do not overlap the powers of the national guard with the FSB and other agencies. “With confidence we can say that definitely require improving the legal and regulatory framework, it will be necessary to make some changes in the laws, and we are not talking about one and not two laws,” — said the press Secretary of the President.
The National guard would overlap with the functions of the FSB, draws the attention of the head of the Moscow professional Union of police officers Michael Pashkin. In the conversation he said that now the fight against terrorism enshrined in law as the prerogative of the FSB. To connect to counter-terrorism the national guard, will need to change the law.
However, it is unclear why the new structure should duplicate the powers of the FSB, said Pashkin. “Does this mean that the FSB is bad to be fighting terrorism? And whether in addition to law enforcement functions in the national guard and investigative, without which to combat terrorism is impossible? There are more questions than answers,” says Pashkin. “If the national guard will only perform power the tasks will put the Ministry of internal Affairs, FSB, customs and other problems should not arise,” added Pasha.
The General-the major of FSB in resignation Vasily Eremenko believes that the national guard took over the functions of the internal troops, will conduct substantial operations within the country. “If the FSB is fighting a separate, hidden by terrorists, preparing attacks in the subway or at the station, the new army unit will withstand a large terrorist groups, such as, for example, is prohibited in Russia the ISIL,” says Eremenko in conversation with .
Anyone else have a guard?
The closest Russia example is the creation of the National guard in Kazakhstan. In April 2014 President Nursultan Nazarbayev has decided to transform the internal troops in the National guard. In addition to renaming, little has changed: the new service remained subordinate to the interior Ministry, headed by the last head of the internal troops General Ruslan Zhaksylykov.
In 2015, in an interview with Russian newspaper “Red star” Zhaksylykov acknowledged that fighters of national guard are laid down in the same tasks, and that for CENTURIES soldiers of Kazakhstan. Among these obligations: protection of public order, tracking of goods, border guards, participation in special operations of the other power structures, the convoy of prisoners, and other tasks. Similar functions are performed by the national guard in some other CIS countries, for example, in Kyrgyzstan.
The second type of military formations on the territory of the former USSR, called the National guard is a service for the protection of senior officials and the head of state, a kind of presidential regiment. According to this principle, the national guard has been operating in Azerbaijan and Tajikistan. In Georgia, in addition to this, the national guard engaged in military mobilization: given reservists and assistance in the conduct of the appeal.
The national guard of Ukraine formed on the basis of internal forces, but has much greater powers. It performs all of the above functions: as protection of public order and officers and the organization of mobilization, conducting counter-terrorism measures, and even participation in hostilities.
The term “national guard” appeared at the initial stage of the French revolution to refer to units that provide order in the streets of Paris. One of the first in the early nineteenth century this name was adopted by the Americans: the national guard, the U.S. supplied military reservists who are periodically mobilized to suppress riots. One of the last such cases were the riots in Ferguson in 2014, although the authorities resorted to the support of the local guard of Missouri.