Difficulties with registration
Experts of Committee of civil initiatives (THD) Alexei Kudrin has prepared a report on the peculiarities of the state Duma elections in 2016, which will be held under a mixed system (225 deputies are elected on party lists and another 225 in single-mandate constituencies). The last time this system was used in elections in 2003.
The new system of registration of candidates (which entered into force in 2014) works against new political parties and independents, experts say Kudrin. Sharply tightened the procedure for registration of candidates from parties that do not have benefits, and independents compared to all previous Federal elections, the report said. From having to collect signatures only to exempt the party with the state Duma elections not less 3% of votes and parties in the past at least one incumbent in the regional Parliament. Majoritarian candidates from parties without benefits and independent candidates must collect the signatures of at least 3% of the number of voters in the County. To deal 3% of signatures, it is necessary to collect about half as much as the part will be rejected, and in practice, such norms require candidates almost total door-to-door or otherwise bypass the voters, as noted in the OIG.
The collection of signatures is complicated by the extremely compressed time period that coincides with the summer holidays due to the postponement of the elections from December to September 2016, experts say. A supporter of the transfer of United Russia Dmitry Vyatkin explained that if polling stations will operate in the summer, and day light is longer, and costs less than heating”.
“Unprecedented” in this election will be cutting constituencies in the regions, which crushes the major cities between multiple constituencies. The new district will look like a kind of “petals” covering the city limits, and rural areas (except cities of Moscow, St. Petersburg and Sevastopol). The obvious strategy of power in such a slicing of the boundaries of the districts — a bet on a decreasing turnout in the cities and a maximum cheat turnout at the periphery in all possible ways, the report said.
Approved the scheme, the then head of the CEC Vladimir Churov has assured that the joint town and village ensures equal conditions for voting and is “a brilliant realization of the ideas of Vladimir Lenin, who spoke about the need for “Union of workers and peasants”.
Also changed the order of reference to constituencies of voters outside Russia. In the upcoming elections of 2016, the legislator returned to the concept of attachment of voters living in different countries, for different constituencies, while the choice of districts looks a bit strange from a geographical point of view, experts say. According to them, a significant portion of the districts, which are attached to the voters abroad, high domestic competition and pluralism, and in such circumstances, can not exclude the situation that the votes cast abroad, can change the final results.
One of the main consequences of the recovery of the majority component will be a “conflict of legitimnosti single-seat districts and of party list candidates, according to the expert KGI Alexander Kanev. “Strengthening of the ability of the parties to influence the deprivation of office of members [for truancy] means that, in practice, some MPs are now more dependent on the party bureaucracy, while the other (single-mandate) will increase the dependence directly with the voters,” — said the expert. A law allowing the faction to deprive the authority of those deputies, who for a month did not attend the event in the Duma and has not worked in the region, was passed by the Parliament in mid-April.
The minimum observation
Duma elections will be marked by a sharp reduction in the capacity of the independent electoral control, experts believe. In 2016 changed the rules of election observation. Amendments, United Russia reduced the number of observers from the candidate or party: not more than two on the parcel. Now the candidate is obliged to submit to the election Commission three days a list of observers that are not registered within the prescribed period before the observation will not allow. Thus be known in advance which areas will be in the day of elections without observers and potential observers themselves can become the object of pressure, experts say. In addition, the law actually prohibits technology “mobile surveillance”, when on-call teams of professional lawyers on election day, go to the most difficult sections, according to the report.
The deputies explained that tightening with the desire to reduce the number of observers, to create more favourable to a free vote of the citizens of the atmosphere: they are uncomfortable to vote on hundreds of observers, given the increased number of parties and the emergence of single-seat districts.
Another law initiated by the United Russia party, restricts the work of journalists on election day. At the polling stations will be able to work journalists who previously were accredited by the electoral Commission, with accreditation to need three days before the election. To be accredited, only those who work in the editorial office at least two months, the person must be in the state or to receive payment on the basis of a civil contract. Thus were virtually eliminated opportunities for work in areas of representatives of independent NGOs in the status of correspondents of mass media, experts say.
Authors explained that the absence of these restrictions led to the fact that very often under the guise of journalists to the sites of people that do not have the media nothing, and interfered with other journalists.”
At the same time introduced fines for observers for the violation of the procedure of work of an election Commission or interference with the participation of voters, referendum participants in the voting”, — from 2 thousand to 5 thousand rubles for individuals and from 20 thousand to 50 thousand rubles for officials.
Experts OIG exaggerate, said political analyst Konstantin Kalachev. For power, the legitimization of the results of these elections, the priority now, he says. According to him, the opposition candidates may be nominated from PARNASSUS or “Apple”. In addition, says Kalachev, there are positive changes associated with the work of observers: a ban on their removal from the site in the pretrial order.