Flew: how much cost of Russia’s own cosmodrome

Flew: how much cost of Russia’s own cosmodrome


On Wednesday at 05:01 MSK was scheduled to launch the first rocket from the Vostochny cosmodrome (11:01 in Blagoveshchensk). At the launch site was attended by President Vladimir Putin. However, automation has allowed to rebound of the missile launch in two minutes before the start, said Roscosmos, noting that a backup launch date, April 28, is maintained.

The reason the rocket did not fly?

“Two and a half minutes before the lift-off was automatic release timeline. After “boost” has been automatic stop start interruptions of the operation of the automated control systems”, — said the head of Roscosmos Igor Komarov.

He later reported that the cause of the launch abort localized, work is underway to fix the problem. “Managed accurately enough to localize a problem place where all could happen, and now work is underway to practise and use the spare set and ascertain more precise reasons,” — said Komarov.
“To work mobile tower or the starting system is irrelevant”, — said the first Deputy head of “Roscosmos” Andrey Ivanov. He also ruled out the human factor and infrastructure of the cosmodrome of the possible causes of the launch cancellation. The representatives of “Roscosmos” I assure you that there is a possibility to resolve problems in the near future and to launch tomorrow — reserve day.

Press Secretary of Russian President Dmitry Peskov said that earlier on Wednesday at the Eastern spaceport has arrived Vladimir Putin. The head of state decided to stay at the spaceport until the moment when it will be clarified by the prospect of implementation of the launch through the day,” said Peskov, noting that while he will hold meetings on the second and third stages of development of the cosmodrome and the construction of the city of Tsiolkovsky.
 

What was planned to launch into space?

The carrier rocket “Soyuz-2.1 a” was put into orbit three satellites — Lomonosov, AIST-2D” and SamSat-218. All three satellites — Russian production, they are launched for scientific purposes, reported the state Corporation. Apparatus “Lomonosov” was assembled at JSC “Corporation “VNIIEM” commissioned the Moscow state University for the analysis of light phenomena in the upper atmosphere and basic research, AIST-2D” and SamSat-218 — specialists of TsSKB-Progress ” and Samara state aerospace University. The purpose of the launch “Stork-2D” — remote sensing of the Earth, SamSat-218 — development of technology control of small spacecraft.

The first rocket was supposed to fly from the East in December 2015, however the cosmodrome had not time to build. Project documentation was delayed for two years, told the first Deputy head of Spetsstroy Alexander Zagorulko, and when it was approved, the planned cost of the project was two times lower than the already suffered Spetsstroy. “At first thought to build a complex for the other rocket “Rus-M”. But then from the creation of this rocket refused. “We felt that the new missile we don’t need: we still can fly on the old” — said the former head of “Roskosmos” Vladimir Popovkin. “Neither of which the launching of missiles from the [Baikonur] East in 2015, of course, cannot be considered. The development of a new missile, until we went from paper to iron, we did.” In the end, “Roskosmos” were required to carry out re-design that delayed the timing, says General designer of the cosmodrome Igor Barmin, the project had to change on the go.

Now completed the construction of the first phase of the centre, which can be launched by the launch vehicles of the middle class “Soyuz-2”. In order to meet the construction schedule, “Roscosmos” has reduced the number of objects of the first stage of the cosmodrome from 20 to 11. Construction work was scheduled to be completed by 30 November 2015, but in October to allow Putin to postpone the first launch in April 2016.

How much cost the construction of the cosmodrome?

On the creation of space rocket complex “Soyuz-2” left of 94.4 billion rubles on infrastructure — 60.8 billion rubles., for work on “the Hangar” — 6,1 billion rubles, counted .

After the premiere launch was planned pause in operation of the spaceport. Executive Director of the Roscosmos Andrew Mazurin said more in 2016-2017 launches, most likely, will not, and starting in 2018 and for the next few years there will be little. The construction of the East should take place in three phases. In the end, its area should be about 700 sq km, that is, ten times smaller than the Baikonur cosmodrome. The whole will be built over 450 sites, 100 km of roads and as much iron, according to “Roskosmos”.

The second phase of construction of the cosmodrome is scheduled for 2016-2023 years. The representative of “Roscosmos” says that preparations for the tender will not begin before September, then the same will be determined by the construction parameters. According to the results of the second phase will be built the launch and the technical complexes for rockets “Angara” and the infrastructure for manned flights. The third stage is planned in 2030 — then launch you can launch the super-heavy class launch vehicles, including lunar expeditions.

In spetsstroe warn that the main costs are still ahead. “The second phase will be much harder than the first, since the rocket is another class, and the wider complex”, — said the Deputy head of Spetsstroy Alexander Mordovets. The second stage of construction of the cosmodrome, according to Rogozin, will require about 250 billion rubles.

The resulting estimates do not exist. There is only a plan, spelled out in the Federal space program for 2016-2025. Her government plans to allocate 1.4 trillion rubles., and after 2022 — 115 billion roubles (the program includes, in particular, the development of spaceports). Officials in their assessments of the final value differ: in December 2011 the Director of Spetsstroy Naginsky Gregory, a figure of 300 billion rubles., in the same December, the space Agency has submitted to the government estimates already on 493 billion roubles, the head of the scientific and technical Council of Roscosmos Yuri Koptev in 2015 is saying that you need 560 billion rubles until 2025.

Will the Eastern replacement for Baikonur?

Eastern is the first Russian cosmodrome for civilian use. Now the majority of Russian launches for civil purposes occurs from the Baikonur cosmodrome, leased by Russia until 2050. Russia annually pays the rent is $115 million, said the representative of “Roscosmos”. The Plesetsk space centre in Arkhangelsk region is mainly used for military purposes.

Eastern has advantages over Baikonur, told me in 2007, led at the time, “Roscosmos” Anatoly Perminov. Among the advantages he called a convenient arrangement: the first stage of the rocket will fall near the spaceport in the taiga, the second — in the waters of the ocean. In 2010, Perminov promised that by 2020 the East can be transferred to 40-45% of the required runs, including for purposes of weather observation, communications, broadcasting, navigation. “The proportion of problems solved with the use of the Baikonur cosmodrome, will be reduced from 65% to 11%,” — said Perminov.

After the completion of the East Russia has no plans to abandon the use of the Baikonur cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at least until 2030. The President of the Moscow space club Sergey Zhukov believes that the decision to remain at Baikonur strategic: many countries such as the US and China, several spaceports for risk diversification.

How much money is “buried” in the construction of Eastern?

The construction of the East was accompanied by scandals, resignations and criminal cases. In Roscosmos head changed twice. In the end, the Department has been headed by ex-President of AVTOVAZ Igor Komarov. In the summer of 2013, Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev dismissed the head of the Spetsstroi Grigory Naginsky — the General contractor of the construction. In “Dalspetsstroy” — subordinated to the unitary enterprise Spetsstroy that is actually engaged in construction, — changed from 2013, five leaders.

In particular, in November 2015, Russia’s Investigative Committee (SKR) announced the completion of a criminal investigation against the former head of “Dalspetsstroy” Yuri Chrisman and the chief accountant of the enterprise Vladimir ashikhmina. According to investigators, in 2011-2013 chrisman and Ashikhmin illegally spent of 5.16 billion from 22.6 billion rubles of advance for 11 state contracts. The money went to payments on loans “Dalspetsstroy” which, in the opinion of the TFR, caused material damage to the state. Chrisman and Ashikhmin arrested, their case of the far-Eastern district military court is considering behind closed doors.

Not less loud was the story of the delay in the payment of wages to the builders of the cosmodrome. In December 2014 the Fes for the first time reported that one of the subcontractors of Pacific bridge construction company (TMK) — was indebted to 1100 employees in nearly 61 million rubles., but the debt has already been repaid. Four months before the company left the Victor Grebnev, the General Director and the owner. Grebnev went to work in the administration of Primorsky Krai, and in comments to “Kommersant” claimed to have sold 75% stake in TMK “Moscow structures”. The arbitration court of Primorsky Krai on TMK has introduced a procedure of observation, and six months later declared the company bankrupt.

TFR opened a criminal case on Grebneva, suspecting him of the damage to the company at 400 million rubles, the Company issued a press release in which it announced that Grebnev spent allocated money for construction on the yacht, the purchase of apartments and construction of a three-storey mansion. However, the TFR has considered that the delay in payment of salaries should be the responsibility of the new leader, and opened a criminal case in which he was arrested, Igor Nesterenko, who headed Grebneva after TMK. Judicial proceedings against Grebneva and Nesterenko continued. Grebnev, resigned from the administration of Primorye. According to the labor collective, the debt as of 21 April 2016, amounted to 129 million rubles, the Fact the debt was confirmed by the Prosecutor’s office of Primorye.

In addition to the criminal cases filed numerous lawsuits to arbitration: Spetsstroy and “Dalspetsstroy” trying to recover from unscrupulous contractors through the courts of more than 4 billion rubles However, according to the SPARK database, the amount of the claim to “Dalspetsstroy” is much more: in just two and a half months of 2016 the amount of claims exceeded 6.8 billion rubles In 2015, the contractors have filed lawsuits against the General contractor, in the amount of 9.9 billion rubles.

Whether the authorities were able to recoup the cost of the construction of the East?

Russia plans and commercial launches from the Eastern. The first is planned for 2018, was told on 12 April, the head of the state Corporation Igor Komarov. According to “Kommersant Money”, we are talking in particular about the largest contract in the history of the launch services agreement signed between the British company OneWeb and the French Arianespace, which involved the launching of satellites of the same system when using 21 of the carrier rocket “Soyuz”.

According to Komarov, the Russian businessmen also show interest in the organization of space tourism and “Roscosmos” is technically ready to support these initiatives, but the state Corporation “do not focus” on the independent development of this market.

According to the Director of research and analytical center of the United rocket and space Corporation Dmitry Paison, the proportion of commercial orders for the provision of space services in Russia and the USA are practically the same — about $11.3 billion in the corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of cosmonautics Andrei Ionin sure that the authorities don’t need to recoup costs on the East, and found it difficult to give figures in which the spaceport could earn. When developing the project, three objectives were set, says expert: the development of the far East region, attracting investment, and young professionals and the development of international cooperation in the space industry. According to Ionin, private rocket launches from the East — the prospect is remote. “Private rocket first you have to build, you have to see if there is a launch pad under it, infrastructure. If in Russia there will be private rocket, the launch site can make money on it: about 10% of the cost of launch — it will be the income of the cosmodrome”, — he said.