Who led the rebellion
Three days after the military coup in Turkey became known details about the possible composition and terms of the leadership of the rebels. Basically talk about it through the media, anonymous interlocutors in the government.
The immediate coordinators of the coup is different. The alleged leader of the coup, as reported by the state Anadolu news Agency, citing an unnamed military resources, was a former Colonel in the armed forces of Turkey Muharrem Kese. Until March he served as legal adviser to the head of the Turkish General staff and was dismissed from this position for malfeasance, reports Reuters, citing three official source in Ankara. The location of the CES is now known.
Another alleged organizer of the coup, the Turkish media referred to as a member of the Supreme military Council of Turkey, General Akin Ozturk. This information Agency Reuters confirmed three high-ranking Turkish official. Ozturk until August 2015 held the position of commander of the Turkish air force, and in August 2016, were to resign from military service. According to the newspaper HaberTurk, last year a group of officers reported to the General staff of Turkey, Ozturk associated with the organization of supporters living in the U.S. spiritual leader Fethullah Gulen, and that the General “had the capacity to make a military coup”. Ozturk was among those generals who were detained after the coup.
As the evening of July 18 was announced by the state Anadolu Agency, öztürk confessed to organizing the coup. At the same time independent mass media (in particular TV channel NTV), in contrast, lead Ozturk’s statements in which he denies his involvement in the conspiracy. “I didn’t plan the coup and ruled them, and I don’t know who did it” — the words Ozturk NTV.
As the Agency Anadolu, the court sanctioned the arrests of 41 of the 103 generals, which the Turkish authorities have detained without delay after a coup attempt. Among those under arrest is the head of the NATO base in Incirlik, General Bekir Ercan van, commander of the Second army guarding the border with Syria, Iraq and Iran) ADEM Huduti and military adviser to Erdogan, Colonel Ali Yazici.
Shadow leader of the coup, the Turkish authorities called Gulen is the spiritual leader of the organization “Hizmet” (“Service”), which President Recep Tayyip Erdogan regards as terrorist and accused of wanting to commit a coup. Gulen himself denies any involvement in the coup — Imam, told reporters in Pennsylvania that never called on Turkish citizens to change the government by military means, because thus it is impossible to achieve the establishment of a democratic regime.
As reported by Anadolu, on suspicion of involvement in the coup detained including two judges of the constitutional court of Turkey — Alparslan Altan and Erdal Tercan.
I hoped the rebels
Some details of the plans of the rebels became known through their correspondence, which were at the disposal of the TV channel Al Jazeera. From the correspondence it becomes clear that to start the coup was planned at 3:00 local time, but some extraordinary circumstance forced the conspirators to start at 21:30 local time.
According to the former foreign Minister of Turkey, expert of the international discussion club “Valdai” Yashar of Akasha, the intelligence services of Turkey, most likely, was aware of the impending coup and the government had taken measures to arrest the leaders and organizers of the conspiracy. The remaining free leaders of the coup were forced to start the night, instead of starting it in the morning on July 16.
Perhaps it is the haste of the rebels can be explained by the fact that they have not taken the steps that usually take the organizers of military coups. According to The Guardian, despite the fact that were seized by state TV channel TRT, private TV channels continued to work, and the military tried to capture them when it was too late (particularly after Erdogan appealed to the public with a call to take to the streets). In addition, the putschists failed to promptly arrange for the arrest of [President Recep Tayyip] erdoğan and [Prime Minister Binali] Yildirim, which largely contributed to their defeat. “Who can count on success only blocking the bridge (over the Bosporus), and took hostage the chief of staff and seized several aircraft?” — asks the expert of the Carnegie endowment for international peace Sinan Ulgen.
From the same correspondence it became clear that in Marmaris, where at the time of the coup was Erdogan on Friday evening flew three helicopters with 40 military on Board, the task of which was the arrest or murder of the Turkish leader. However, Erdogan on a private plane left the hotel in Marmaris for half an hour before I got there speakers on the side of the military coup.
From the correspondence it is also clear that the conspirators had a list of 80 people who they wanted to bring to the governance of the country.
The coup was a list of 9130 people, which they planned to arrest, The Guardian reports, citing a government source. In every region of Turkey, they planned to appoint a military Governor, and to replace all heads of state institutions. According to a source publication, “there is a sense that the junta had failed some time on preparation”.
While there is no definitive answer to the question of why the coup decided to do it now. The possible reason, according to Turkish media, could be a forthcoming meeting of the Supreme military Council of Turkey, which was held in July and which is expected decision on the resignations and appointments in the chain of command. In particular, the newspaper Hurriyet, citing informed sources said that the followers of gülen realized that preparing a purge command structure of the Turkish army, therefore, decided to use last chance” so as to establish control over the state apparatus.
Green light for authoritarianism
For Turkey, the failure of the coup is almost guaranteed to result in changing not only the command of the army, but also a significant upgrading of the bureaucracy. According to the Ministry of internal Affairs of Turkey, at the end of the coup, their seats will lose 8.7 million people, including 30 governors.
The Prime Minister yıldırım day July 18, told the Anadolu Agency, on suspicion of involvement in the coup have been detained more than 7,5 thousand persons (of which more than 600 have been arrested by court decision). Among the arrested 755 persons is judges and prosecutors, more than 6 thousand soldiers of different ranks, 100 and 600 civilians.
The dismissal of hundreds of judges, including constitutional court, according to Politico, could affect negotiations between Turkey and the European Union regarding the abolition of visa requirements for Turkish citizens. Brussels puts in front of Turkey 72 conditions, including the guarantee of an independent judiciary. In addition, according to the publication, Turkey is unlikely to ease its anti-terrorism legislation, which is another condition for visa liberalization with the EU. The head of European Union foreign policy, Federica Mogherini, in connection with the words of Erdogan, about the possible introduction of the death penalty to punish the coup has already stated that “no state can become an EU member, if you impose the death penalty.”
Another immediate consequence of the coup may be the deterioration of relations between Ankara and Washington. While statements by Turkish officials, which require the American authorities to extradite Gulen, are extremely severe in nature. 18 Jul Prime Minister Yildirim said that the friendly relations between Turkey and the United States “can be called into question”. The Yildirim said that any country that supports Gulen that were involved in war with Turkey.” USA, in turn, do not hurry to comply with the requirements of the Turkish side: Secretary of state John Kerry said that for a start, Turkey needs to provide proof of Gulen’s involvement in the coup.
According to the Director of the Center for security studies and energy of the Organization international strategic studies, expert of the “Valdai” Hasan Selim Ozertem, a sharp deterioration in relations with Washington could potentially even lead to the loss of Turkey’s membership in NATO.