The results of nomination of candidates for deputies of the state Duma (elections will be held September 18) suggest that the recent electoral restrictions were excessive and reduced the quality of real competition, it follows from the progress report of the Committee of civil initiatives (chaired by ex-Finance Minister Alexei Kudrin). Its authors — experts on elections Alexander Kynev and Arkadiy lyubarev. Created after the previous election system increasingly plays monopoly position of a few parties, prevents the appearance of new projects and gradually stimulates their elimination, say the authors.
Why did the party not go to the polls
Of the 74 parties that had the right to nominate candidates to deputies of the state Duma, the ability tried to use only 25, and at the end of congresses of their Federal lists were able to assure the CEC is only 18.
Among those who will not go to the polls in 2016, there are well-known political forces. For example, I have not tried to make the election one of the oldest forces of the Democratic party of Russia, and “Green Alliance” conducted the pre-election Congress, but has violated the requirement of the CEC, without informing him about the event, and in the end did not submit lists.
34% nominated is the lowest proportion of the total number of registered parties for all elections in the state Duma since 1993, according to the report. At the first election documents for registration filed 38% of organizations have this right. In 1995, 41% in 2003 to 75%. A low proportion of the documents filed for registration this year associated with greatest requirements for nominees, say the authors.
The main problem, according to the report, associated with the collection of signatures: they need to collect 200 thousand, the requirement applies to all parties, except the 14 that have representation in the regional legislatures. Signatures should be collected in July, when many voters are on vacation (the first elections are held in September, earlier they were appointed in December and the collection of signatures was in the fall), they need to be notarized, the proportion of marriage in subscription lists may not exceed 5% (in the 2003 elections, the proportion was 25%).
Separately, the authors of the report note that the authorities have given parties the minimum possible period for the collection of signatures. Vladimir Putin has signed the decree about appointment of elections for 92 days prior to the election, so political forces were given 48 days to gather all documents and supply them to the CEC. But by law the President may sign a decree for 110-90 days, and the deadline for submission of documents is still the same — at least 45 days before the election. If Putin had signed a decree in the earliest period — may 30 — the party would not be 48 days, and 66. And in reality, the party could collect the signatures, not all of these 48 days. After the decree the party should hold a Congress, to assure the documents to the CEC to open an account. In practice, in the best case, it takes 26 days, the report said. Thus, the collection of signatures remain a matter of days.
In addition, each candidate still needs to provide more in comparison with the previous elections the number of documents (including information on assets and expenses). And the candidates themselves in the list must be at least 200, although previously the minimum number of candidates was equal to 70 (in the 2011 elections).
Where it may lead
Not participating in the elections of the party doomed to elimination in 2019-2020, the authors predict. This happens because of the law, according to which not taking part in elections for seven years a political force is subject to liquidation. For participation in elections shall be counted one of five conditions: elections to the state Duma, the President, participation in nine gubernatorial campaigns, participation in elections 17 regional parliaments or participation in municipal campaigns in 43 regions.
In the elections of heads of regions is necessary to overcome the municipal filter (provide signatures of municipal deputies), which is almost impossible, the authors note. In the period 2012-2015, only three parties who did not attempt to participate in the Duma elections, took part in at least three gubernatorial campaigns (Party of pensioners of Russia, the Communist party and the Cossack party). Regional barrier (17 elections in legislative Assembly) has overcome while only two parties that do not participate in the elections of the state Duma: the DWP and the Communist party.
Participation in presidential elections is also unrealistic for most parties, the authors suggest. Now you need to collect 100 thousand signatures, but most likely, this rule will correct, they predict. The only possibility to save the game for the majority of political forces participate in a large number of municipal elections, but it will require great effort, the report said.
“If the party exists, and is not involved in the elections is an oxymoron. But after changed the system of registration of candidates in 2014, it turned out a vicious circle: to participate in the elections you need to have benefits, to get benefits, you need to participate in elections. This system is obviously insane. The system must be channels of tolerance of political forces, and they are immured,” — said Kanev.
The openness of the political system is high, argues a political scientist and member of the Supreme Council of “United Russia” Dmitry Orlov. “Percentage of parties participating in the elections, does not illustrate the level of competition. It illustrates only the adequacy of the actions of the leadership of the parties and the willingness of parties to participate in elections. To date, the readiness is low. But we have a developing political system with an open entrance. You can draw an analogy with the process of making political soup — somebody’s digested,” he notes.