In their study, the experts of the world Bank have allocated the 83 regions in Russia in three categories: Laggards (27 regions), medium (44 region) and the lead (12 regions). The authors proceeded from the size of gross regional product (GRP) per capita (data for 2011). In the category of Laggards included the subjects of the North Caucasus and southern Russia and the Volga region. Among the leaders were mainly the regions of the Far East, Urals and North-West.
The analysis showed that the position of the regions dependent on exports and investment from abroad.
Almost 80% of the gross regional product (GRP) in Russia accounted for the depressed regions, indicate in a fresh review of the “Comments on state and business” experts of the Higher school of Economics (HSE). Still very high percentage of regions where reduced all five sectors of the economy or growing only one. The composite index of regional economic activity in July declined from 36.1 per cent to 35.1 per cent, it “clearly indicates a continuation of the recession”, albeit not in its most acute stage, the review says.
The world Bank traditionally explains income inequality uneven distribution of oil and other minerals. In General, the inequality among Russian regions is very high, the study said: so, the poor subjects of comparable income per capita with the poorest countries of Africa. But, for example, Sakhalin, if it were a separate country, would come under the group of countries with high incomes (according to the world Bank). GRP per capita is associated with quality of life in the region, but should be considered a living wage in the subject, the Director of the regional program of Independent Institute for social policy Natalya Zubarevich. In this case, the separation of oil and gas regions continues, but he “would not be so monstrous because there cost at least 40% higher.”
The largest volume of foreign investment accounts for regions where oil and gas resources, as well as to Moscow and Saint Petersburg (due to high business activity). Economists note that the richer regions more actively attract foreign investment. The opposite is true: the seven regions that do not receive investment from abroad are among the poorest in Russia. But Moscow with St. Petersburg and the oil and gas exporters, only the beneficiaries of the proceeds from the sale of minerals, so it is not necessary to say that regions succeed by focusing on the outside world, said Zubarevich.
The volume of exports also depends on the availability of minerals. They occupy 90% in the export of the leading regions and only 30% in exports lagging. At the same time the high share of exports is the Central Federal district. However, this can be explained by the place of registration of the headquarters of the companies which in fact have been mining in other places, the authors indicate.
Seven of the 12 leading regions are included in the 15% of the subjects with the highest volume of export of fossil. In addition, seven leading regions are included in the 15% of the subjects with the greatest amount of investment. And only two of the leading region may be one of the lists — Yakutia and Krasnoyarsk Krai.
Consensus about the direct relationship between export investment and economic growth, the study says the world Bank. However, the authors come to the conclusion that this is an important factor that may determine the socio-economic development of Russia and become an important item on the agenda for regional policy. In the short and medium term, Russia can earn mainly on the export of minerals, but the Russian authorities claim its purpose the development of high-tech exports, indicate economists.
The positive balance of the consolidated budget of Russian regions in January—July of 2016 amounted to 419 billion (0.9% of GDP), the report says the HSE. Mostly, the surplus was formed at the expense of regions receiving capital or natural resource rents” (Moscow, Moscow oblast, Saint Petersburg, Leningrad oblast, KHMAO, Tyumen oblast, Sakhalin oblast, Tatarstan, Bashkortostan). However, this figure does not mean that the regions have no problem with balanced budgets, write economists: 41 region a budget surplus to reduce failed. On this two subjects more than in the same period last year.