500 thousand annually
Thursday, October 6, experts of Committee of civil initiatives (THD) Alexei Kudrin presented a report on emigration from Russia from 1989 to 2015. The authors report, “Emigration from Russia in the late XX — early XXI century — doctor of economic Sciences Olga Vorobyeva candidate of economic Sciences Oleksandr Grebenyuk stated that the existing methods of counting those who left Russia in the past with the collapse of the Soviet Union, the years do not adequately assess the scale of the departure.
Experts cite the official statistics between 1989 and 2015, according to Rosstat, Russia has left about 4.5 million people. The greatest number of emigrants had at the beginning of the 90s, then impoverished after the collapse of the USSR left the country, those who were looking for earnings abroad. So, in 1994, the country has left more than 700 thousand people. Further, the number of emigrants has gradually decreased, reaching its minimum in 2009, 32.5 thousand people.
According to foreign statistics to 2015, which was analysed by experts (primarily data from Eurostat and the statistical authorities of individual States) to the most popular among Russians countries, home to some 1.5 million people who have a Russian passport. This statistic, however, does not account for illegal migrants and those who actually live “in two countries”, the report said.
However, the report said, according to the foreign statistics, to get a realistic idea about the scale of emigration from Russia Rosstat annual data need to be adjusted 3-4 times in the direction of increasing.
Roughly multiply the official statistics and the estimated is not explained Grebenyuk. For clarity, you need to look at the situation with emigration over the last 5 years. She began to grow strongly in 2011, said Grebenyuk, about the very moment when the topic of going abroad was becoming mainstream. In the last few years the country had gone to an average of 120 thousand people annually, since 2011, Russia has left from 500 to 600 thousand Russians, says the expert.
The main reasons
The main reasons for emigration, if you operate the data of Rosstat, the motives of personal and family Affairs, and according to sociological surveys with prospects of growth of material wealth, social status, personal and economic security. The motives of the experts are divided into push and pull: the first involves leaving the country because of dissatisfaction in it, and the second is the desire to live in a state that is attractive for one reason or another.
Among the push factors experts identify the unstable economic and business environment, currency volatility, the risk of external and internal “shocks” to the economy and the penetration into all spheres of economic activities of criminal approaches to the regulation of relations of market participants. I do not like people also the absence of real competition, high level of corruption in the institutions of business, financial and investment activities,
the increasing risks to personal and business security associated with one of the world’s highest levels of corruption in the bureaucracy and law enforcement. Not favorable conditions for small and medium-sized businesses, low wages, the necessity of finding additional sources of income — is also worried about the Russians.
Leave Russia and those who sympathize with opposition views;
fears of open participation in protests for fear of being subjected to persecution for their beliefs, weakness and relevance of the institutions of civil society and distrust in the institutions of law enforcement and judicial systems.
In foreign countries the Russians are attracted by the demand for highly skilled workers, entrepreneurs, professionals, researchers, receiving there is a real opportunity to improve the quality of life, the authors write. In the West, a favorable business climate, clear terms of reference and guarantee of the inviolability of private sobstvennosti.
Who wants to go
Experts OIG summarized the data of sociological surveys and found that the proportion of those who have high migration, ranges from 8 to 23%. More than others always want to leave Russia, young people with higher education and as educated Russians of middle age, and also inhabitants of Moscow and St. Petersburg and residents of large cities from 250 thousand to 1 million people. The highest level immigrant sentiment among students who are leaving the country, using the opportunities of educational and work exchange.
The composition of the immigrants were younger, more adapted for the perception of the conditions and rules of life in the new countries, say the authors of the report declined in recent years and the language barrier. Immigrants use more distant countries and continents, particularly Australia, New Zealand, South America.
The growth of property and social stratification have emerged and increased among immigrants stratum of rentiers, the authors of the report: monetary assets and living on dividends from Bank deposits. And among the rentiers increasingly found former officials and their families, and families of political, bureaucratic, financial elites.
Among Russians who want to leave Russia in recent years has become a popular motive for so-called “alternate aerodrome” (a residence permit, real estate, second citizenship, etc.). This motif of departure is mainly found in wealthy segments of the population, which, leaving out of the country not only capital, but also the businesses where the accompanying emigration to the conclusion not only of capital, but “businesses” (companies and firms).
Where to go
Among Western countries, the Russians where to go, the three leaders has not changed: the US, France and Israel. During the period from the early 90s and currently in Israel left more than 150 thousand people, Germany — about 750 thousand people in the United States — about 110 thousand people. Among other attractive migration in terms of countries is relatively small, but steady flows are observed in Australia, the UK, Spain, Italy, Canada, Finland and France. Every year in these countries, leaving from 300 to 700 immigrants from Russia, written by experts.