The experts of the Higher school of Economics (HSE) in the report “Comments on the state and business” described the scenario of the financing of education and health in Russia: the costs in these areas are provided primarily by the regions, but they are harder to maintain priority funding of social spheres.
Funding for both directions in relation to GDP in the next three years, according to the plans of the Ministry of Finance will return to the 2006 level, the authors of the report.
Burden for financing of education and medicine lies mainly in the regions. So, in 2015, of funding for education 3 trillion in the means of the subjects had 2.4 trillion On healthcare last year was spent 2.8 trillion rubles, the main source of Fund OMS (1.6 trillion roubles). The contributions for employees paid by the company, and for the unemployed — the same regional budgets, whose share in the past year had RB 0.6 trillion in addition, the subjects sent directly another 0.7 trillion to Fund spending on medicine. Thus, the regional authorities in 2015 financed 81% of the cost of education and 47% of total healthcare costs, according to the HSE.
Federal budget 2013 “consistently absent” from the funding of social spheres, write the economists. Its expenditure on education declined from 1% of GDP in 2013 to 0.7% of GDP in 2016, and by 2019 is expected to drop to 0.6% of GDP. An even smaller percentage will make up the cost of medicine — 0.4% of GDP in 2019 vs. 0.7% in 2013.
The regions difficult to maintain priority funding for education and healthcare (they have to do for the implementation of the may decrees of the President about increase of salaries of state employees), the authors. To execute orders of the head of state power of the subjects could “by crowding out other types of spending”, but if “a coiled spring to uncoil” in the regions will resume the pending projects of construction and improvement, “schools and hospitals will go by the wayside”, warn the authors.
The report called three scenario. The problem can not be solved, leaving the regions, but this will allow the education and medicine “to come down to the levels of Asian and Latin American countries.” But they differ from Russia in that there is no demographic problems, so the authorities can not particularly worry about the level of education, nor about the health of the population.
The second scenario according to the report — spend “budget maneuver” – namely, to find, what other costs can be reduced (by 6% was already reduced spending on defense) and from which subsidies to companies to give.
The third path involves the search for new sources of financing social spheres. We can talk about additional taxes at the regional level and contributions to the MHI or the co-financing of education and health of the population, write the economists.