Economists against the government
Leading economists, academics and deputies of the state Duma spoke against the changes of the principle of withdrawal of the net profit of the Federal state unitary enterprises (FGUP). Innovation government, suggesting that Federal instead of 25% will be required to remit to the state 50% of profits, laid down in the draft budget for 2017-2019, which the state Duma will consider in the second reading on 7 December. This initiative will primarily affect the work of the research centers, many of which have the status of Federal state unitary enterprises and have a negative impact on domestic science, according to respondents, representatives of the scientific community and parliamentarians.
To 2014 common rules of withdrawal of profits from Federal state unitary enterprises was not. The state could keep all the profit to the enterprise, and to take up to 80% of earnings, the decision was made on the basis of the report on the activities of the FSUE over the past year. In April 2014, Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev signed a decree obliging the Federal state unitary enterprises to transfer to the Federal budget not less than 25% of net profit. This year, the government again proposed changes, but convincing arguments in favor of the revision approved in 2014, the scheme of withdrawal of profits from the research centers did not provide, said HSE rector Yaroslav Kuzminov.
“Doubt and economic feasibility of extending the exemption of the net profit is now up to 50% of the profits,” said Kuzminov. With the rector of the HSE, agreed Dean of the economic faculty of Moscow state University Alexander Auzan, who criticized the budgeted proposal of the government in the expert conclusion on the project of the main financial document (available in the database of documents of the state Duma). Auzan noticed that the government have not been able to obtain from state-owned companies enumeration is much more moderate fees.
In Russia today 43 research organizations, most of which are occupied by developments in the aircraft industry, physics, chemistry and electrical engineering, 15 of them now operate in the form of FSUEs. Federal — a state organization that has the right to earn money. In 2017, according to the draft budget, the government wants to receive from all Federal 8,58 billion rubles According to system SPARK, the profit of scientific enterprises in the form of the Federal state unitary enterprise, which was transferred to the budget in 2015 amounted to more than 164 million rubles In 2016, has transferred more than 193 million rubles. the Ministry of education and the Ministry of Finance did not provide information about the withdrawn profit research centers.
How is science in Russia
In the reform of the Russian Academy of Sciences, launched in 2013, the property management Academy conferred on the Federal Agency of scientific research (FANO). It is through FANO are funded by the Federal state budget institution (fsbi), dealing with scientific developments. According to the official website of FANO, in Russia 745 similar organizations.
The 2016 budget funds allocated for FANO are 85,53 billion rubles., of which basic research is directed to 69.4 billion rubles In the framework of the program “Development of science and technologies” for 2013-2020 aims of 65.4 billion rubles. the Total budget appropriation for this programme amounted to 1.48 trillion rubles, 869,4 billion comes from the budget.
In March 2016, Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev said that this year the government will allocate for research and development 315 billion. Support of fundamental scientific research provided by the Russian Foundation for basic research (RFBR). In 2016, the budget of the Fund amounted to 12.8 billion rubles, and in 2017 will amount to 20.3 bn RUB Financial support mainly through grants. Today RFBR interact with scientists from 4000 Russian organisations.
The impact on science
The proposal of the government “stupidity” because it would negatively affect the preservation of the scientific potential, said Director of the Institute of national economic forecasting of RAS Victor Ivanter. The initiative, according to him, contrary to the position of President Vladimir Putin, who at a meeting of the Council for science and education November 24, said about the need to support the level of spending on basic science. The government’s proposed innovations like the reform of science after the collapse of the Soviet Union, when, due to lack of funds from science gone young professionals, noted academician.
With Evandera agree and HSE experts who opposed the proposals of the government and official opinion on the draft budget. Innovations will negatively affect scientific research and can lead to irreversible loss of scientific and technical potential of Russia, follows from the expert opinion of the HSE on the draft budget (available in the database of documents of the state Duma). Experts note that in the explanatory Memorandum to the bill does not specify the amount of expected income from a change in the way the profits are taken from Federal state unitary enterprises, while for other proposals the numbers are. Research centers “hollering” of innovations, said the Director of the Institute of Geosphere dynamics RAS Vitaly Adushkin: organizations will not be able to buy new equipment, and this has a negative impact on the quality of research.
Withdrawal of profits under the new rules will lead to an increase in the technological gap, it will have to freeze and promising fundamental research, told the Deputy Chairman of state Duma Committee on education Oleg Smolin. “It is a matter of national security, because the scientific centers associated with the military industrial complex,” — said Smolin.
Research center Keldysh (working in the field of rocket engine manufacturing and space power), which may be subject to government initiatives, participates in the creation of interorbital tugs with nuclear electric propulsion unit, and the Central Aero-hydrodynamic Institute Zhukovsky, which, like the Keldysh research center, the status of Federal state unitary enterprise, develops the new model aircraft on hydrogen fuel. At issue, said Kuzminov, and the implementation of the programme of joint activities of research centres involved in the pilot project to establish a National research center “Kurchatov Institute”. In 2012, Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev approved the program of development of the Kurchatov Institute, which was to become the largest research Technopark of Moscow. In the new environment, says the strategy will require revision of the program and additional subsidies from the budget, which is difficult to calculate. The Institute was unable to immediately answer questions .
Officially in scientific centers to comment on possible changes in the rules of the seizures of their profits refuse. Research the Keldysh center, Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute, Central Institute of aviation motors and the all-Russian research Institute of aviation materials, like most scientific Federal state unitary enterprises, requests are not answered the part of the scientific Dsct referred to the secrecy of the work related to military specifics.
A source in the Keldysh research center said that from the government’s administration of the centre were never consulted — although rumors about the innovations appeared in may. Now before the research center, according to the source , sharply raises the question of how to conduct research, if funding under government contracts will be delayed.
Some centers have already started to solve the question of how much they will be paid to state in manual mode. The source in the Central research Institute of chemistry and mechanics said that the negotiations of the management with the government took place. The question now by and large resolved and 50% of net profit will not be withdrawn, the source said .
The Chairman of the Committee on budget Andrey Makarov was unavailable for comment. Declined to comment the staff of the budget Committee, and the Chairman of the Committee Leonid Simanovsky. Member of the budget Committee, the Deputy Valentin Shurchanov stated that the Committee voted against the introduction of a new principle of withdrawal of profits, the issue will be definitely addressed in the second reading of the draft budget.
“There is no malice there. Just don’t pay attention to the presence of research centers among the Federal state unitary enterprise in the decision”, — said Kuzmin. The government drew attention to research centres because of problems with the economy, I’m sure the state Duma Deputy, member of the budget Committee Faith Ganza. She claims that the government is now seeking reserves to create a safety cushion. Deputy Smolin believes that the government is only looking for something to fill holes in the budget.