Statements in Washington
Washington first began to talk about the Soviet Union in the past tense. Speaking at Princeton University, Secretary of state James Baker said that the state created by Lenin and Stalin built, he carried himself the prerequisites of his death. “As a result of the collapse of the Soviet Union, we now live in a new world,” he said.
White house spokesman Marlin Fitzwater said that the US continues to contact and with the Federal center and republics. However, the reality was different: for the time elapsed after the Belavezha accords were signed, President George Bush never talked with Gorbachev, but had a half-hour conversation with Yeltsin.
Concerns in the U.S. is the economic situation in the former Soviet republics.
“From Odessa to Vladivostok, people are confused, feel tired and hungry. It is essential that they are convinced Democrats and reformers in the state to provide them with the most necessary goods. The Soviet people should not lose hope that life will improve. The West will not remain a bystander revolution unfolding before our eyes.” James Baker, U.S. Secretary of state
Baker also noted that not all the former republics can count on US. According to him, “commitment to democratic ideals” showed Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan and Armenia. Can not wait for support, most likely, Georgia and Azerbaijan: the first for the establishment of the authoritarian regime of Gamsakhurdia, the second for the escalation of the armed conflict in Nagorno Karabakh.
U.S. Secretary of state James Baker. 1991
Photo: Greg Baker/AP
That evening a telephone conversation between Bush and Gorbachev was held. As vspomnil Gorbachev aide Anatoly Chernyaev, the Soviet leader said gave “it failed” the American leader and asked to convey to the media that Bush proposed to maintain regular contact. The next day must be a conversation of Gorbachev with the French President Francois Mitterrand. “It’s all straw, for which M. S. [Gorbachev] grabs” — wrote in his diary, Chernyaev.
“On December 13, in another telephone conversation, at the request of President Bush, I shared my estimates on this score (as the Minsk agreements .). The Minsk agreement of the three presidents is only a sketch, improvisation. Left a lot of unsolved questions. And chief among them — there is no mechanism of interaction…
In Minsk was made by the very free statement that the Soviet Union no longer exists. But then, then there is no laws regulating public order, defense, borders, international relations, etc., etc. this was Done three presidents under very dubious historical pretext: they are Russia, Belarus, Ukraine — was in 1922 initiated the formation of the USSR, so de they have the right to dissolve. It is amateurish approach, an attempt to give a cheek for political culture. And even more impossible to give it for a manifestation of historical responsibility,” Mikhail Gorbachev. “Dec-91”.
The first decrees of the Kravchuk
Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk issued the first decree in his post. He ordered to establish the State customs Committee and the Ministry of education, and also took on the responsibilities of the Supreme commander of Ukraine.
New Ukrainian army was established on the basis of the Kiev, Odessa and Carpathian military districts and the black sea fleet. While it did not include troops who make up the strategic deterrent force. Management transferred to the jurisdiction of the joint chiefs of member countries of the CIS.
The situation in Moldova
On Friday 13 December 1991, sharply escalated the conflict in Transnistria — clashes broke out near the town of Dubossary. The Moldovan authorities have repeatedly tried to regain control of areas that have declared themselves independent following a referendum, and now it came to the beginning of the armed conflict.
The foreign press
- Crop failures, falling production in the food industry, a complete violation of industrial relations: fear the worst. Gorbachev, Yeltsin and Sobchak keep in mind the food riots when the turn to the West. Sometimes the threat is exaggerated, but, nevertheless, it is real. The queue passes and the deficit, of course, is not new to the citizens of the former Soviet Empire. However, in large cities, food stocks have declined substantially (Le Monde)
- “If you start moving too late, life will punish you”, — for some time the Soviet President has successfully done this Maxim of his political philosophy, dodging, looping and improvising on its way into history, taking an amazing series of political steps that helped to change the world — and helped him to retain power. Now is the time rapidly approaches end. In experiancom turn of fate, the 60-year-old Gorbachev was the last victim of his own maxims, defeated made a political push, crossed the border” (The Wall Street Journal)
Other news of the day
- Boris Yeltsin and George Bush also held telephone talks.
- Chairman of the Russian state Committee for property management Anatloiy Chubais announced tax reform in Russia, it should be held in the first quarter of 1992
- Opened in Vladikavkaz, the Congress of the Ossetian people, the main issue is the reunification of South and North Ossetia within Russia.
- According to the poll, 46% of Russians and 41% of Russians are ready one year to suffer material deprivation in anticipation of the success of reforms promised by Yeltsin. Every tenth of the respondents willing to wait for more
- The Ministry of communications of Russia has increased since January 1992, the tariffs for distribution of Newspapers and magazines in the country from 3.6 times. Journalists called it “a devastating blow to print”
- Scheduled for the end of December, the visit of Mikhail Gorbachev to Czechoslovakia cancelled
- In Greece, lit the flame of the Winter Olympic games in 1992, which will be held in the French Albertville
- The capital of Nigeria was moved from Lagos to Abuja
- North Korea and South Korea signed in Seoul the agreement on reconciliation, non-aggression, Bilateral exchanges and cooperation