A period of decay: the last Dec Union. 22 Dec 1991

A period of decay: the last Dec Union. 22 Dec 1991

The aggravation of the situation in Georgia

The opposition of the first President of independent Georgia Gamsakhurdia Zviad and the National guard has reached the limit and resulted in armed clashes on the streets of Tbilisi.

The reasons for the conflict were several. Chief among them — the aggravation of relations with national minorities that, inter alia, led to the fact that at the beginning of September 1991 independence declared by South Ossetia. Advocated nationalization of economy, Gamsakhurdia for a few months of being in power has damaged its relations with nearly all intellectuals, business representatives, the opposition and the army. By the time of the escalation of the conflict in December, he several times by force broke up the protest, his main pillar in the defense of their position was part of the armed forces, which he called “Zviadist”.

They were opposed by the national guard under the direction of Tengiz Kitovani. 20 December 1991, Gamsakhurdia demanded immediate disarmament and dissolution of the organization. In response, the division under the leadership of Kitovani’s forces staged an armed rebellion right in the center of Tbilisi. Clashes with artillery and tanks on Rustaveli Avenue lasted two weeks and ended with Gamsakhurdia fleeing from the country.

“In the morning started their armed attack on government buildings. In the course went all cash weapons. Physicians assisted victims, literally bringing them out of the crossfire. Guards loyal to the President, along with volunteers, protect the occupants of the building President members of the Parliament and the government. TV broadcast with large intervals. Radio silent. On Sunday I made one of the clergy and called for an end to bloodshed. But since the live was heard exploding shells and gunfire, he immediately added that the Church, apparently, is already powerless,” wrote “Nezavisimaya Gazeta”.

The consequences of armed clashes in Tbilisi. December 1991

Photo: Collection of Nino Melia/RIA Novosti

Extension of the CIS: the reaction in the world

Satisfaction and some level of caution — these were the basic evaluation agreement signed by leaders of 11 former Soviet republics in Alma-ATA, the data of representatives of foreign countries.

  • USA. The former assistant to the President for national security Zbigniew Brzezinski said that Washington should immediately recognize former Soviet republics as independent. The head of the Senate Committee on armed services Sam Nunns agree with the analyst, but, according to him, the US needs to put one solid condition — the only nuclear Republic in the territory of the former USSR must remain Russia. In addition, the issue of cooperation with the republics should link with the problem of human rights, first of all speech should go about the rights of Russian-speaking minorities in most of these republics.
  • Italy. The President of Italy, Francesco Cossiga sent a letter to Yeltsin in which he said that the establishment of the CIS at the defining role of Russia is aimed at development of international cooperation in Europe and will benefit relations between Italian and Russian peoples.
  • France. The Minister of foreign Affairs of the Republic Roland Dumas said that France welcomes the outcome of the Almaty meeting. He noted that the emergence of the CIS helped to avoid the chaos, adding that France should help the population to overcome the difficult period.
  • UK. The British foreign office stated the need to examine the agreements reached at the talks in Alma-ATA. The main issue for London is the preservation of all commitments made by the USSR. Among them: arms control, human rights and foreign debt payments.

March of the hungry queues

The rally in Moscow, organized by the Communists, was named a March of the hungry queues. A crowd numbering, according to various estimates, from 10 to 40 thousand people, went from VDNKH to the Ostankino television center. The took part in it as representatives of left-wing political claims, and the patriots, the monarchists and the supporters of Vladimir Zhirinovsky.

“The demonstrators are songs about Lenin did not sing, but willingly pulled the Internationale, “Arise, great country” coming from sound-amplifying devices. Sang songs and read poems (their own and Pushkin) also some of the speakers. Other people argued that he is now doing very poorly, and soon will be lived worse, but the powers that be can’t complain. A former member of the Central Committee of the CPSU Alexey Sergeev proposed to check foreign currency accounts of Gorbachev, Yeltsin and Popov,” — wrote “Kommersant”.

Protesters against the policy of the new Russian authorities got to the television station and demanded to give them three hours live broadcast on the Central television. TV guide has received a delegation of the protesters and refused them. The March organizers threatened to block either the television station or the clock next to him to hold pickets, but by 22 GMT the protesters had dispersed to their homes — near the television station, not a single person.

March of the hungry queues. Moscow, December 1991

Photo: Andriy Solovyov/TASS

The foreign press

  • “The new security unit could unite NATO countries, former members of the Warsaw Pact and the new Commonwealth of Independent States of the former Soviet Union under a nuclear Russia. The West will obviously be happy to see Russian as their nuclear Cossacks in the territories bordering on China and the Islamic world” (The Guardian).
  • “Western experts fear that the tactical weapons in an escalating confusion may be in unfriendly hands. A recent study by the Harvard Kennedy school was called tactical weapons “alarming”, noting that it “is more widely scattered through the republics, rather than a strategic weapon, there is a greater variety of types and assemblies and some of the older models will likely not include built-in safeguards” (The New York Times).

Other news of the day

  • Russian President Boris Yeltsin addressed the session of the North Atlantic cooperation Council with the participation of 16 countries — members of NATO and nine Central and East European countries put the question of the possible accession of Russia to NATO.
  • 38% of Muscovites have declared readiness to join the strike, 43% do not consider such options — these are the results of a new study Polls.
  • In Moscow hosted the founding Congress of the Socialist workers party, co-chaired by the historian Roy Medvedev and the future speaker of the state Duma Ivan Rybkin.
  • In Taiwan we spent the first 40 years of free elections, their winner was the ruling party “Kuomintang” with a score of 71%. The democratic opposition, seeking the adoption of the formal Declaration of independence from China, was defeated.
  • The former head of the GDR, Erich Honecker continues to be in Russia, despite the demands of Moscow to leave the country. He lives in the Embassy of Chile and is negotiating with the DPRK and Cuba who are willing to accept Honecker.

div class=”r-calendar-title”>Chronicle December 1991

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