Low salaries hamper the effectiveness
Can Russia catch up with leading countries in terms of productivity, but only in the long term — from six to 15 years. This opinion is shared by 75% of the 500 managers and owners of industrial enterprises who participated in the study, presented at one of the first sessions of the Russian investment forum in Sochi. In able to achieve the level of productivity of other countries in a period of up to five years certain only 20.7% of respondents. Among the authors of the study — the Ministry of industry and trade and the Centre for strategic developments (TSSR) Alexei Kudrin.
Improving the efficiency of companies could lead to layoffs, but in the future it will help to create new — and high-paying jobs, said in Sochi, Deputy Prime Minister for social Affairs Olga Golodets. Now the number of vacancies in the country stands at about 1 million, this figure has decreased since 2012, she said. The main obstacle to productivity growth, according to the Golodets, are reduced investment and a lack of entrepreneurs incentives to invest in technical re-equipment. These incentives are now is not because of cheap labor, says Golodets: 4.9 million people work for the minimum wage (SMIC), which is itself below the subsistence level.
To improve performance the need to improve administration of the programs for the grants or industrial development, as well as to seek new growth points to stimulate investment, convinced the Deputy head of the Ministry Vasily Osmakov. But if you look at all of the government’s plans over the past five to seven years, the task of improving performance is always formulated and formulated quite clearly, however, were not fulfilled even by 50%, said Alexei Kudrin. The first factor that you should look for when solving this problem, the quality of governance, he said. The difficulty lies in the introduction of new technologies — despite the growth of investments in the years of high oil prices, the performance of “every year decreased, and decreased,” said Kudrin. Improving the efficiency of impossible and with a weak technological progress — the share of innovative products increases the minimum rate, despite the costs, said the head of CSR. For long-term development concept, adopted in 2008, this share had grown to 40%, but now stands at only 9%.
Photo: Artyom Korotayev / TASS
How to balance the budget
The Minister of Finance Anton Siluanov during the session “inter-Budgetary relations. In search of an equilibrium” outlined four questions that arise when looking for a balance Federal budget and budgets of regions. According to him, not all heads of regions it is obvious that the budget of the region and its investment attractiveness is linked. “The budget [of the subject] often turns into a useless scrap of paper: it seems there is recorded one thing and do another,” — said Siluanov. Second question: interbudgetary relations is a dependency or a motivational tool towards development? Third question: what awaits the regions farther — increasing dependence on the centre, or more autonomy? You need to understand how to build the system of intergovernmental fiscal relations and what to do next — pursue a common policy for all the subjects or to give more autonomy, taking into account features of regions. Another topic for discussion in the search for balance in intergovernmental relations — tax changes: how they affect budgets — razbalansirovat or, on the contrary, will improve.
Kudrin proposed to give the regions more freedom and reform control and supervision. Another point on the path to budgetary balance, according to the head of CSR, the reduction of subsidies from the Federal budget to at least 20 with the establishment of more clear and concise requirements for their recipients. This was accepted by the speaker, but stressed that to abandon subsidies impossible, as they are a tool of regulation of industries.
Bring the installers from the shadows
In order to bring the self-employed of the informal sector, there are two approaches, says Deputy economic development Minister Oleg Fomichev at the session, “Legalization for self-employed: the prospect of a warming or burning reality?”. The first is the tightening of the tax on self-employed and gain control, the second — creation of conditions for voluntary legalization of citizens. In an ideal situation, the two approaches should be combined, said Fomichev: “under normal conditions, if the person is not involved in the legal relationship, does not pay taxes, then it should be limited opportunities for getting various social services that are provided at the expense of other taxpayers, the limitations associated with the pension system, and so forth.” The “carrot” in the current environment — “dead end”, he said, so as not to allow legalized “garage economy.”
Authorities earlier released from payment of taxes and contributions for two years several categories of self-employed — nurses, Tutors, housekeepers and caregivers. The “boss” decided to legalize those categories that work for him, and “all the rest is pushed into the background”, ironically at the same session the head of the chamber of Commerce and industry Sergei Katyrin. The authorities did not pay attention to the most popular categories of self-employed without affecting installers, repairers and hairdressers, which is much more said the first Deputy Chairman of the Duma Committee on economic policy Vladimir Gutenev, citing statistics on patents for self-employed.
Dmitry Medvedev (center)
Photo: Alexander Miridonov / Kommersant
A new economic plan
In the plenary session of the Sochi forum was attended by Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev. He revealed details of the draft plan to increase the pace of economic growth in the years 2017-2025, which is prepared in the government and is intended to raise the growth rate to the world average or above. Among the main areas of the plan is to create a sustainable environment, increasing productivity and creating infrastructure for the introduction of the digital economy. The authorities want to transform the structure of the economy, boost non-commodity exports and to implement new investment projects, described by the Prime Minister. The stable environment he called the measures aimed at ensuring the stability of macroeconomic dynamics and business practices, including the sustainability of the systems of tax and non-tax payments and tariffs of natural monopolies, principles of Supervisory activities and measures of state support. According to him, in the next five years the labour market will experience a shortage of qualified personnel, so improving efficiency is the second key direction of the plan.
The third area of the plan — the so-called smart economy. “E-technology should cover all areas — from trade and logistics to public services from industry and education to housing and utilities sector and healthcare, it is necessary to create a legal and physical infrastructure for the transition to a digital economy”, — said Medvedev. “Russia has all the components to become one of the leading technological countries in the world. We have the intellectual capacity we have the resources,” he said.
After the plenary session, where Medvedev spoke about the strategy of economic growth, of the participants in the forum discussed how to avoid “training is not viable strategies.” It was mostly on state programs. The head of the Ministry Maxim Oreshkin, who was sitting before the Presidium next to the Prime Minister, said that in the past few years, the government was in a “state of siege”. Power “from the battle” adopted the budget, after which he adapts his program why they were not working, said Oreshkin. But now the budget is stable even at low oil prices.
In the work with the strategies necessary to prioritize, pointed out the Director of the Department of project activities of the government Andrey Slepnev. Previously, the priority projects, which he oversees, was treated lightly, but the situation changed when they became “a real factor in the privatization of resources,” he described. Now the initiatives for new projects and directions are too many, he said.