Egypt — Hosni Mubarak
Egypt’s President Hosni Mubarak addresses the nation on Egyptian State TV in this still image taken from video, February 1, 2011. Mubarak said on Tuesday he would not run for the presidency again and would work in the last months of his term to allow the transfer of power. REUTERS/Egyptian State TV (EGYPT – Tags: POLITICS)
Hosni Mubarak was President of Egypt for 30 years, since 1981. In 2011 the Arab spring reached Egypt after 18 days of mass protests and popular unrest, Mubarak resigned. 11 Feb 2011 it was finally handed over presidential powers to the Supreme Council of the armed forces headed by field Marshal Hussein Tantawi.
A few days after the resignation of Mubarak was placed under house arrest at the residence of his family in Sharm El-Sheikh. In April of the same year he was taken into custody on charges of corruption, of involvement in the deaths of 239 demonstrators and delivery of vehicles and weapons to disperse protesters clashes. In June 2012 he was sentenced to life imprisonment, but because of ill health he was transferred to the military hospital Maadi. In March 2017 Mubarak was acquitted on charges in the deaths of demonstrators, in connection with the Prosecutor’s office of Egypt decided to release former President from detention. By this time, due to a period of three years for embezzlement of $17 million, was allocated to renovate the presidential Palace, he departed. 24 Mar Hosni Mubarak was released.
Tunisia — Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali
In this image made from Channel 7 Tunisia TV Tunisian President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali is seen making a speech in Tunis, on Thursday Jan. 13 2011. Violent anti-government protests drove Tunisian President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali from power Friday Jan. 14 2011 after 23 years of iron-fisted rule, as anger over soaring unemployment and corruption spilled into the streets. (AP Photo / Channel 7 Tunisia) Photo: AP
14 January 2011 revolution which ousted President Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali. He fled with his family to Saudi Arabia, ending his 24-year rule of the country.
Six months later, the court of first instance of Tunis sentenced Ben Ali and his wife to 35 years in prison and a fine of $65 million on charges of embezzlement of public funds. According to investigators, beginning in 1992, Ben Ali, illegally increased his salary, publishes the official decrees, thereby appropriating about €8.2 million In June 2012, the Military Tribunal in Tunis sentenced former President to life imprisonment for involvement in killing protesters during the 2011 uprising. At the moment Ben Ali was charged under articles 18 and 93 episodes, many of which he faces the death penalty.
Libya — Muammar Gaddafi
02 March, 2011
Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi waves in Tripoli before making a speech which he sought to defuse tensions after more than 10 days of anti-government protests in Libya, March 2, 2011. Gaddafi, orchestrating a populist response to rebels threatening his rule, blamed al Qaeda on Wednesday for creating turmoil and told applauding supporters there was a conspiracy to control Libya and its oil. REUTERS/Ahmed Jadallah (LIBYA – Tags: CIVIL UNREST POLITICS IMAGES OF THE DAY)
Photo: Ahmed Jadallah / Reuters
The leader of the Libyan revolution Muammar Gaddafi came to power by overthrowing the king of Libya Idris I in 1969. Since then, he actually started to lead the country. By the time the outbreak of the revolution in Libya he ruled for over 40 years. In February 2011 the country held protests to demand the resignation of Gaddafi, the armed uprising lasted for almost ten months. On 20 October of the same year, as a result of military operations of the Libyan leader was ousted and killed by rebels near his hometown of Sirte. There was killed by his fifth son Mutassim bill Gaddafi. About four days the body of Muammar Gaddafi was put on display, and later he and his son were buried in the desert, the place of burial is kept secret.
Yemen — Ali Abdullah Saleh
Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh speaks during a media conference in Sanaa, Yemen, Monday, Feb. 21, 2011. Yemen”s president rejected demands that he step down and said Monday that the widespread demonstrations against his regime were ending acts of provocation, though he renewed calls for talks with the protesters. After a week and a half of marches that have left nine dead, President Ali Abdullah Saleh told a news conference that he ordered the army to fire at demonstrators “only in case of self-defense.” Photo: Hani Mohammed / East News
“I will go only in one case: if defeated in the elections,” said Saleh during a press conference on 21 February 2011, stressing that none of the opposition’s demands will not force him to resign. A year later amid mass protests of the “Arab spring” the Yemeni President left his post and handed over power to the new President, elected in early elections. Ali Abdullah Saleh has led Yemen since 1978.
In January 2012, the Parliament of Yemen Saleh has granted political and legal immunity, which protects from prosecution. In his speech, the former head of state asked forgiveness “for any violations that took place during my tenure”.
During the riots of his intention to resign was announced a few leaders. Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir stated that he would not seek re-election in 2015. Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki refused to re-election at the expiration of the term of office. The country held more demonstrations demanding his immediate resignation. In the course of protests in Jordan in February 2011, king Abdullah II has sent the government in resignation.