MOSCOW, 5 may — RIA Novosti, Natalia Dembinski. What to do with the growing army of Russian pensioners how to reduce the burden on the budget and to fulfill all obligations to present and future members of the pension system. One possible solution is to send people to retire later on several years.
So, according to ex-Finance Minister, head of the Center for strategic research (CSR) Alexei Kudrin, the age of retirement should be gradually increase for women to 63 years for men to 65 years: “walk” for half a year starting in 2019. This proposal contains prepared the CSR strategy of development of pension system until 2035, the newspaper “Vedomosti”, the disposal of which was a document.
9% less retirees
Russia now has about 43 million pensioners per 1,000 employees accounted for more than 400 disabled.
According to the authors of the strategy, will help to reduce the number of pensioners by 9% (3.87 million people) to 38.52 million people, will increase the sustainability of the pension system and the standard of living of the elderly.
The main goal is to prevent the reduction of pensions, the authors of the strategy. “For 2014-2016 years, the average pension decreased by 7% in real terms, amounting to 1.5 of the living wage of the pensioner and 34% of the average wage (the average insurance pension is 1.6 and 35.6%, respectively)”, the newspaper quoted the materials of the CSR.
How to calculate CSR experts, this and a number of other measures will allow to raise the ratio of pension to the subsistence minimum to 1.85 by 2024 and to 2.33 by 2035. The ratio of the average pension insurance with the average salary will remain at the level not lower than 34%, according to the authors of the document.Alexei Kudrin at the Krasnoyarsk economic forum 2017
Smoothly, even more smoothly
“To raise the retirement age is necessary”, — said Oksana Sinyavskaya, Deputy Director of the Institute for social policy at the HSE. According to her, in current financial conditions, the budget, who carried a substantial part of the pension burden, more able to withstand. Alternatives — either permanent insufficient indexation of pensions, measures to modify retirement benefits for future generations.
But, according to Sinyavsky, you need to discuss the thresholds and boundaries, which increases the retirement age. And the pace of raising the retirement age should be slower — not to exceed four months per year.
“It will be easier perceived not only by the population and the labour market — it needs time to adjust to a greater number of age-related candidates,” she explains.
But it is more justified from the point of view of the demographic situation, the expert believes equal retirement age for men and women.
Concerns about the problems of retirement age, she called excessive.
“Almost all countries, including our neighbors of the Soviet Union, decided to take this step, and no highly dramatic consequences in view of the fact that people do not get a pension or not live to see it, has not happened,” said Sinyavskaya.
Can not stand
Of the need to raise confident, and Deputy Director of the Institute for social analysis and forecasting Ranhigs Yuri Gorlin. He explains that in most countries, men retire at the age of 65-67 years and women — 63-65 years old.The Congress on gerontology took part more than 1000 people
As noted Gorlin, now Russian women the average expected period in retirement is 25 years. Thus, it turns out that the woman of 25-30 years of experience and 25 years of age receives a pension.
“No pension system can not withstand this and thus provide a socially acceptable level of pension. It is impossible,” — said the expert.
Supporters argue that the contributions that the pension system collects from employers is not enough to pay pension insurance.
But opponents retort: so, we need to increase their rate of premiums.
Now in Russia the rate of insurance contributions for employers one of the lowest in the world — 22%, indicates the Professor of the Academy of labor and social relations, an independent economist Andrei Gudkov.
The economist proposes to raise the rate of insurance premiums from the current 30% to 34%, of which 26%, in his opinion, should be sent to the FIU. “When the rate was 34% in 2011, subsidies to the Pension Fund is not required”, — he said.
Live a little
The main argument of the opponents of the pension system — the low life expectancy in Russia, and therefore to a “new” pensioners, many simply will not survive.
“We have a very slowly rising life expectancy at birth and life expectancy at adult ages is not increasing. Therefore, the change in retirement age means a sharp increase in the number of people who prior to retirement will not survive,” — says Gudkov.Medicine of the future promises that we will live up to 120 years
The expert points to the fact that women retire at 55 years old, live more than men, on average to 78 years, whereas men up to 66. Thus, the age of survival in retirement for women is 23 years, while for men — only six.
“So, if we increase, then, as in the Ukraine — for women only. In addition, women will retire with large pension rights will receive an additional five years to pay pension insurance contributions,” — said Gudkov.
Now is not the time
The prerequisites for raising the retirement age expert also include the economic growth rate of not less than 3%, the increase in saving rates and a sufficient number of jobs.
“The government with these tasks is not doing so to raise the retirement age now is to put the cart before the horse, so it is impossible to go”, — concluded the economist.