In July 2016, the Turkish military attempted to remove the President Recep Tayyip Erdogan from power, but failed. Then killed 104 rebels and 47 civilians were arrested more than 1.5 thousand people. The mastermind of the coup, Erdogan called preacher Fethullah Gulen and promised big changes in the country.
A constitutional referendum
In April 2017 in Turkey held a referendum on the transition from a parliamentary to a presidential form of government. Despite the fact that most of the major cities voted against the amendment of the Constitution, narrowly defeated supporters of a presidential Republic. Constitutional amendments involve a significant expansion of the powers of the President: abolition of the post of Prime Minister and appointment of members of the government directly by the President. Also constitutional amendments give the President the right of legislative initiative, the right to dissolve the Parliament. In addition, the head of state from Parliament passes the right to impose and to lift the state of emergency. After a constitutional referendum, Erdogan said the possibility of the return of the death penalty.
A state of emergency
After the coup attempt in Turkey began massive layoffs and resignation. Authorities declared state of emergency, which is still in effect. This allows Erdogan and the government to issue special decrees, which do not require the approval of Parliament and the constitutional court.
At the end of may 2017 President Recep Tayyip Erdogan said that a state of emergency will not be cancelled and will continue as long as the country will not come, “prosperity and peace”.
Why Erdogan cancels state of emergency in Turkey
According to Turkish law the President of the state of emergency has the right to issue decrees on questions related to the cause of conducting a state of emergency. Such decrees virtually had the force of law but do not require the approval of Parliament and not controlled by the constitutional court. Since the attempted coup in the official database of the Turkish legislation was published on 24 of such decree.
After a coup attempt was dismissed more than 86 thousand public servants. In total, according to human rights website Purge Turkey on 12 Jul 2017, have lost their jobs, more than 121 thousand people. The most affected the sphere of education, which accounted for over one third of all dismissed, the armed forces, internal security and the judiciary.
Detentions and arrests
In early July of 2017, the Minister of justice of Turkey stated that since the attempted coup on suspicion of his training was arrested 50.5 thousand persons, in respect of 168.8 thousand people conducted trial. According to the site Turkey Purge on July 12, 2017, was arrested 55.9 per thousand. In September 2016 the Ministry of justice told about the plans to build the country’s 174 new prison.
At the end of July 2016 issued a decree that gave the right to detain suspects for up to 30 days, and in October the authorities received the right to attend and record meetings accused of having links with terrorists and their lawyers and to withdraw the documents used at such meetings. In early January of 2017, law enforcement agencies have received authorization to access personal information of Internet users for the purposes of the investigation of crimes committed on the Internet. Then the authorities got the right to revoke the citizenship of the compatriots that reside abroad and do not respond to court challenges during 90 days.
The first decision of the Turkish court about a coup attempt was made in June of 2017, when 23 people were sentenced to life imprisonment, and other defendants received more lenient sentences or were acquitted.
In February of 2017 began the trial of 47 suspected of plotting to assassinate Recep Tayyip Erdogan during a coup attempt, and in may of 2017 began the trial of over 200 suspects in the organization of the coup attempt, but the trial was postponed until the end of October 2017.
In mid-June of 2017, one of the leaders of the opposition Republican people’s party, Turkey’s Deputy Parliament speaker Enis Berberoglu was sentenced to 25 years in prison for charges related to treason. As a protest party leader Kemal kılıçdaroğlu and other protesters went to the “March of justice” from Ankara to Istanbul and, after about 450 miles in 25 days, July 9, kılıçdaroğlu joined mass protests in Istanbul.
Then, in mid-June, judge of the International residual mechanism for international tribunals (MOMUC) of Aydin Sefa Akaya was sentenced to 7.5 years in prison on charges of membership in a “Terrorist organization of fethullahists”.
The arrested assets
Decrees from 1 September 2016 was given to the state insurance Fund of savings deposits, the assets of companies suspected of links to terrorism. In early July of 2017, the Deputy Prime Minister Nurettin Canikli said that the government of Turkey because of suspicions of links with terrorists seized and appointed external management in 965 companies, which employ 46 357 people. The total value of the assets of these companies amount to nearly 41 billion Turkish liras (about $11.3 billion). Also were arrested the property of 107 individuals.
Shortly after the coup, issued a decree that closed three news agencies, 16 TV channels, 23 radio stations, 45 Newspapers, 15 magazines, and 29 publishing companies and distribution channels.
In August 2016, eliminated the Department of telecommunications, who was responsible, in particular, for blocking sites, and transferred its powers to the office of information and communications technologies.
In early January, he issued a decree giving authorities the right to suspend the broadcasting media for one day, if it violates a ban on the publication and also to revoke the license of the media, if the violation is repeated three times a year.
In March 2017, the state broadcasting company TRT withdrew from the consortium that owns the channel Euronews. Turkish has become one of the languages of broadcasting Euronews in early 2010, after TRT has acquired a share of 15.5% in the consortium.
Presidential decrees since the coup attempt had been closed at least 130 media (14 of them subsequently removed from the list) and 29 publishers. In addition, it was dismissed more than 500 employees from various government departments and state-owned companies in the media sector (according to others, more than 1.4 thousand). According to human rights website Purge Turkey on 12 Jul 2017, was closed 149 media. Also, referring to the various organizations for the protection of the rights of journalists, the organization reports 269 of the detained journalists during the period from July 15, 2016 July 12, 2017.
Shortly after the attempted coup by the decree of 23 July were closed 1043 educational institutions and dormitories, as well as 15 universities. According to the site Turkey Purge on 12 July 2017 15 July 2016 was closed 2099 schools, universities and dormitories, and more than 8.2 thousand University professors were dismissed.
The closure of schools due to the fact that the coup was accused supporters of the preacher Fethullah Gulen, who for many years lived in the United States. Gulen is the spiritual leader of the movement “Hizmet” (from Turkish — “service”). Members of the movement called “dzhamaata”, that is “the Muslim community”. Not only in Turkey but around the world there are schools “Jamaat”, founded by Gulen. In Turkey, they were considered among the best until they have begun to close.
October 29, 2016, a decree was published that gave the Turkish President to appoint rectors of universities directly, without taking into account the preferences of the professors of educational institutions.
In addition to the closure of educational institutions and dismissal of teachers of Turkish society is faced with massive contributions of students. So, was expelled more than 16 thousand cadets, deducted also Turkish students studying in other countries. The decree of July 31, prescribes the creation of national defense University, which should unite all the military educational institutions of the country, close all the military academies and to manage military education through the new University.
In June, the Ministry of education promulgated the new regulations, under which all schools in the country must be equipped with prayer rooms.
At the end of July 2016 from command of the armed forces by a presidential decree was dismissed 1684 person, including 149 of the generals and admirals. All presidential decrees after the coup attempt was dismissed as a minimum of 6.3 thousand military, among whom prevailed the command structure of the army, air force and Navy, and gendarmerie. The total number of dismissed military personnel, according to Turkey Purge, more than 10 thousand people.
An emergency decree in July 2016 subordinated to the command of the army, Navy and air force to the Ministry of defence, giving the President and the Prime Minister the right to give the commander units direct orders. After massive layoffs at the end of October the graduates of engineering faculties were allowed to become air force pilots. In December 2016, the NATO commander Curtis Scaparrotti warned that the NATO command may degrade due to the dismissal of capable military personnel.
The organs of internal security and the judicial system
Also emergency decrees from service was dismissed more than 13 thousand employees of the security service and the interior Ministry, 5.6 thousand employees of the Ministry of justice and various judicial bodies. According to Turkey Purge, was dismissed 30.5 thousand employees of the security service and the interior Ministry, and 9.9 thousand employees of the judiciary. The decree of 1 September 2016 facilitated the reinstatement of judges and prosecutors who have retired before the attempted coup.
The international situation
After an unsuccessful coup attempt in Turkey, the leaders of major countries, UN Secretary General ban Ki-moon, NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg spoke in support of the legitimately elected President of Turkey Erdogan. The Minister of foreign Affairs of Russia Sergey Lavrov said that the need to avoid bloodshed and to solve all problems exclusively in the constitutional field.
However, soon followed the mass arrests, dismissals, limiting the operation of numerous non-profit organizations, as well as the April referendum, which gave the President more power Erdogan has drawn criticism from European leaders and tensions in the relations of Turkey with the European Union. Thus, the Netherlands and Germany has canceled a planned meeting with President Erdogan.
The parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, organization for human rights, Turkey has made a watch list because of reports about mass arrests and dismissals. The supervision of the Council of Europe means that Turkey will be exposed to frequent visits of officials on human rights often debated in the Strasbourg chamber. In addition to Turkey, such monitoring is also carried out in nine countries of the Council of Europe: Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Moldova, Russia, Serbia and Ukraine.
In response, Erdogan said that Turkey would reconsider its position on accession to the European Union. The European Parliament in early July, 2017, passed a resolution calling on the EU and the European Commission to suspend the accession negotiations with Turkey, until the Turkish authorities will amend the constitutional reform.