Researchers from the University of Michigan conducted a mathematical analysis of the State Duma elections in 2016 and came to the conclusion that the fraud in these elections were the most extensive since 2000. The study authors Kirill Kalinin and Walter Mebane wrote an article about it in The Washington Post.
The researchers cite in their article a number of the discovered patterns in the election results that enable them to make a conclusion of fraud. So, for example, Kalinin and Mebane refer to the study Arturas Rozenas from the Political University of new York. He noticed that too many sections of those where United Russia gained more than 50% of the votes, used to refer to the results of the numbers without a remainder divided by five: 55%, 65%, 70%,75% etc.
The article notes that scientists have found similar patterns in the election results in Russia from 2000 to 2016 According to the authors of the study, these frauds can be used as a mechanism through which regional authorities show their loyalty to the Kremlin.
Kalinin and Mebane found another two indicators, evidence of fraud: in one case the winning portion of the party forwarded a portion of the votes in the other — almost all the voices. According to scientists, about 3.6% of the vote (approximately 2 million votes), typed in “United Russia” was rigged.
Duma elections were held on 18 September in a Single day of voting. They were held under a mixed system: 225 deputies in the 450-seat Parliament were elected by party lists and another 225 in majority districts. The elections were won by “United Russia”, receiving 54.2 per cent of votes. The party also won 203 out of 225 single-mandate districts. As a result of its representation in the Duma was 343 seats out of 450, which was a record in the history of the lower house of Parliament.